Chemical Formula: (NH3)
Ammonia, it is a chemical compound also called azane or nitrogen trihydride, is the simplest inorganic base and an important source of nitrogen for many applications. Ammonia is a weak base. It combines with various acids to form ammonium salts, which are important chemicals in many industries. Ammonia readily dissolves in water in an exothermic reaction, to form aqueous ammonia solution, also called as ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH).
NH3 + H2O → NH4OH
Liquid ammonia is an important non-aqueous solvent, which can dissolve many alkali and alkaline-earth metals to produce blue-colored conductive solutions.
Ammonia is a colorless and pungent gas with a sharp, penetrating odor composed of nitrogen and hydrogen. It is the simplest stable compound of these elements and serves as a starting material for the production of many commercially important nitrogen compounds. NH3 gas can be liquefied, however, due to its extremely low boiling point, liquid ammonia must be stored at low temperature and high pressure.
Ammonia is a very important industrial chemical, and is used widely in both its pure form and as a feedstock for a wide variety of other chemicals.
Ammonia is the precursor to various important nitrogen compounds, such as urea, amino acids, phenol, acrylonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, soda ash, nitric acid, and many others. It is also used for the production of fertilizers, polymers, synthetic fibers (nylon, rayon), explosives (TNT, nitroglycerin), cleaning agents, and refrigerants.